Impact of E-Waste Exposure on Reproductive Hormone Disruption


  • Muneeba Attique Community Medicine, Gomal Medical College, DI Khan, Pakistan Author
  • Mirna Denise Díaz Solís UMAE Hospital de Gineco Obstetricia No.3 “Dr. Victor Manuel Espinosa de los Reyes Sánchez” Centro Médico Nacional “La Raza”, Mexico City, Mexico Author
  • Hamza Shahzad MBBS, Khyber Medical University IMS, Kohat, Pakistan Author
  • Hamza Ali Shah MBBS, Khyber Medical University IMS, Kohat, Pakistan Author


e-waste, endocrine disruption, health risks, electronic devices, environmental contamination


The rapid proliferation of electronic devices and the subsequent increase in electronic waste (e-waste) have raised concerns about potential health risks associated with improper handling and disposal. This two-year longitudinal study involving 160 participants aimed to evaluate the association between e-waste exposure and endocrine disruption-related health risks. The results showed increased levels of reproductive hormones, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (mean: 4.2 ng/mL, SD: 0.9 ng/mL), luteinizing hormone (LH) (mean: 6.1 ng/mL, SD: 1.3 ng/mL), and testosterone (mean: 520 ng/dL, SD: 80 ng/dL) among e-waste recycling workers compared to control groups, indicating a potential endocrine-disrupting effect. Additionally, individuals residing near e-waste recycling sites exhibited higher levels of urinary di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites, further suggesting a link between e-waste exposure and endocrine disruption. These findings contribute to understanding the health risks associated with e-waste and highlight the importance of addressing proper disposal practices and regulatory measures.


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How to Cite

Attique M, Solís MDD, Shahzad H, Shah HA. Impact of E-Waste Exposure on Reproductive Hormone Disruption. IRABCS [Internet]. 2023 Dec. 31 [cited 2024 Jun. 16];1(2):68-72. Available from:

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