Targeting protein-protein interactions for therapeutic intervention in Parkinson's disease to delay progression.


  • Hassaan Ahmad Rehman medical college Author
  • Syeda Farwa Zaidi Rehman medical college Author
  • Abdullah Jan Safi Pak international medical college Author
  • Sadaqat Ullah Rehmat Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad. Author
  • Safi Ullah Khyber medical college Peshawar Author
  • Summet Kumar SMBBMC Author



Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative condition with few treatments to slow or stop development. Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are intriguing therapeutic targets. This research examined the safety and effectiveness of a new Parkinson's disease medication targeting PPIs.

Methods: After enrollment, 60 individuals were randomly assigned to the treatment and control groups. MDS-UPDRS Part III score change from baseline to week 12 was the main outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures were the Hoehn and Yahr scale, NMSS, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Study-wide adverse events were tracked.

Results: Compared to the control group, the treatment group exhibited a substantial improvement in MDS-UPDRS Part III score (p < 0.001). Additionally, the therapy group showed substantial improvements in Hoehn and Yahr stage, NMSS score, and MoCA score compared to the control group (p < 0.001). No significant adverse effects were documented with the experimental medication.

Conclusion: This research suggests that targeting PPIs may treat Parkinson's disease. No harmful side effects were detected with the experimental medication, which improved motor and non-motor symptoms in PD patients. These results require more study to determine the long-term safety and effectiveness of targeting PPIs in Parkinson's disease.



Download data is not yet available.


Tomkins JE, Manzoni C. Advances in protein-protein interaction network analysis for Parkinson's disease. Neurobiology of Disease. 2021 Jul 1;155:105395.

Rane P, Sarmah D, Bhute S, Kaur H, Goswami A, Kalia K, Borah A, Dave KR, Sharma N, Bhattacharya P. Novel targets for Parkinson’s disease: addressing different therapeutic paradigms and conundrums. ACS chemical neuroscience. 2018 Jun 29;10(1):44-57.

Wojewska DN, Kortholt A. LRRK2 targeting strategies as potential treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Biomolecules. 2021 Jul 26;11(8):1101.

Singh A, Maharana SK, Shukla R, Kesharwani P. Nanotherapeutics approaches for targeting alpha synuclien protein in the management of Parkinson disease. Process Biochemistry. 2021 Nov 1;110:181-94.

Ferrari R, Kia DA, Tomkins JE, Hardy J, Wood NW, Lovering RC, Lewis PA, Manzoni C. Stratification of candidate genes for Parkinson’s disease using weighted protein-protein interaction network analysis. BMC genomics. 2018 Dec;19:1-8.

Bonte MA, El Idrissi F, Gressier B, Devos D, Belarbi K. Protein network exploration prioritizes targets for modulating neuroinflammation in Parkinson’s disease. International Immunopharmacology. 2021 Jun 1;95:107526.

Dar KB, Bhat AH, Amin S, Reshi BA, Zargar MA, Masood A, Ganie SA. Elucidating critical proteinopathic mechanisms and potential drug targets in neurodegeneration. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology. 2020 Apr;40:313-45.

Zhu S. RNA pull-down-confocal nanoscanning (RP-CONA), a novel method for studying RNA/protein interactions in cell extracts that detected potential drugs for Parkinson’s disease targeting RNA/HuR complexes.

Richards AL, Eckhardt M, Krogan NJ. Mass spectrometry‐based protein–protein interaction networks for the study of human diseases. Molecular systems biology. 2021 Jan;17(1):e8792.

Allen SG, Meade RM, White Stenner LL, Mason JM. Peptide-based approaches to directly target alpha-synuclein in Parkinson’s disease. Molecular Neurodegeneration. 2023 Nov 9;18(1):80.

Du W, Liang X, Wang S, Lee P, Zhang Y. The underlying mechanism of paeonia lactiflora pall. in parkinson’s disease based on a network pharmacology approach. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2020 Nov 23;11:581984.

Chou KL, Taylor JL, Patil PG. The MDS-UPDRS tracks motor and non-motor improvement due to subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2013 Nov;19(11):966-9. doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2013.06.010.

Yergolkar AV, Yalamanchili J, Satish K, Saraswathy GR. PND24 target identification and drug repurposing for Parkinson's disease: a NOVEL integrative computational approach. Value in Health Regional Issues. 2020 Sep 1;22:S79.

Chetty D, Abrahams S, Van Coller R, Carr J, Kenyon C, Bardien S. Movement of prion‐like α‐synuclein along the gut–brain axis in Parkinson's disease: A potential target of curcumin treatment. European Journal of Neuroscience. 2021 Jul;54(2):4695-711.

Yang J, Zhang B, Houten S, Schadt E, Zhu J, Suh Y, Tu Z. A novel approach of human geroprotector discovery by targeting the converging subnetworks of aging and age-related diseases. BioRxiv. 2018 May 19:326264.

Patwekar M, Patwekar F, Sanaullah S, Shaikh D, Almas U, Sharma R. Harnessing artificial intelligence for enhanced Parkinson’s disease management: Pathways, treatment, and prospects. Trends in Immunotherapy. 2023 Nov 1;7(2):2395.

Sun Y, He L, Wang W, Xie Z, Zhang X, Wang P, Wang L, Yan C, Liu Z, Zhao J, Cui Z. Activation of Atg7-dependent autophagy by a novel inhibitor of the Keap1–Nrf2 protein–protein interaction from Penthorum chinense Pursh. attenuates 6-hydroxydopamine-induced ferroptosis in zebrafish and dopaminergic neurons. Food & Function. 2022;13(14):7885-900.

Quan P, Wang K, Yan S, Wen S, Wei C, Zhang X, Cao J, Yao L. Integrated network analysis identifying potential novel drug candidates and targets for Parkinson's disease. Scientific Reports. 2021 Jun 23;11(1):13154.

Karunakaran KB, Chaparala S, Lo CW, Ganapathiraju MK. Cilia interactome with predicted protein–protein interactions reveals connections to Alzheimer’s disease, aging and other neuropsychiatric processes. Scientific reports. 2020 Sep 24;10(1):15629.

Azeggagh S, Berwick DC. The development of inhibitors of leucine‐rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) as a therapeutic strategy for Parkinson's disease: the current state of play. British journal of pharmacology. 2022 Apr;179(8):1478-95.

Pennington KL, Chan TY, Torres MP, Andersen J. The dynamic and stress-adaptive signaling hub of 14-3-3: emerging mechanisms of regulation and context-dependent protein–protein interactions. Oncogene. 2018 Oct 18;37(42):5587-604.






Research Articles


How to Cite

Ahmad HA, Zaidi SF, Jan Safi AJS, Sadaqat Ullah Rehmat, Safi Ullah, Summet Kumar. Targeting protein-protein interactions for therapeutic intervention in Parkinson’s disease to delay progression. IRABCS [Internet]. 2024 Jul. 2 [cited 2024 Jul. 20];2(1):62-7. Available from:

Most read articles by the same author(s)