Bacterial, Fungal, and Parasitic Infectious Diseases of the Central Nervous System: Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology


  • Natasha Hastings St. George's University, School of Medicine Author
  • James Hanna St. George's University, School of Medicine Author
  • Emon Javadi St. George's University, School of Medicine Author
  • Mykhalo Dudkin St. George's University, School of Medicine Author
  • Rami Matar St. George's University, School of Medicine Author
  • Denis Selimovic St. George's University, School of Medicine Author


bacterial, fungal, paraasitic, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, neurocysticercosis, abscess, neurodegeneration, pathophysiology, treatment, complications


Background: Central nervous system (CNS) infections encompass a broad scope of diseases caused by the pathological invasion of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Specific virulence factors of micro- and macro-organism organisms successfully enable their bypassing of immune surveillance. 

Aim: This paper aims to seek a deeper understanding of the trends in the pathophysiology of infectious CNS disease by various pathogens and to enable advancements in identification and treatment that can benefit the prognosis of all affected patients.

Methods: A narrative approach was employed to explore the pathophysiology, risk factors, complications, and prognosis of infectious categories. Exclusion criteria were applied and a relevant timeline was established from 2007 to 2023.

Results: Trends were established amongst routes of inoculation, proteins being used to bypass the BBB, inflammatory processes, risk factors, and epidemiology present amongst CNS infections. Clinical presentations can be synonymous with different infectious pathogens and diagnostic tools, most notably the PCR and CSF analysis, help to accurately diagnose and ensure proper treatment of CNS infections. 


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Hastings N, Hanna J, Javadi E, Dudkin M, Matar R, Selimovic D. Bacterial, Fungal, and Parasitic Infectious Diseases of the Central Nervous System: Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology. IRABCS [Internet]. 2023 Dec. 31 [cited 2024 Jun. 16];1(2):87-95. Available from:

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