Precision Medicine Approaches in Diabetes Management: Targeting Individualized Pathways


  • Nasim Akhtar Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Islamabad, Pakistan Author
  • Sana Tahir Virk Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Islamabad, Pakistan Author
  • Akmal Zubair Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan Author
  • Shabnam Mehboob Department of Zoology, Shaheed Benazir Women University Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan Author



diabetes, treatment, nanotechnology, gene therapy, statin


This article primarily focuses on novel approaches for managing diabetes, with a particular emphasis on type 2 diabetes. Insulin- and glucagon-secretagostimulating peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an essential element of incretin-based therapies. Its function is contingent upon the levels of glucose in the body. Incretin-based treatments consist of orally active dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors and injectable GLP-1 receptor agonists. The main objective of current treatments for DM is to achieve glycemic control. However, this strategy overlooks other pathogenic variables that have a role in treatment failure and the development of the illness. Moreover, the existing anti-diabetic drugs now in use have a range of adverse effects with prolonged use. Consequently, researchers will continue to actively seek novel approaches to address DM. Diverse research conducted globally has proposed novel therapy techniques that target various and alternative pathogenic hotspots associated with DM. This review article aims to examine novel therapy options that have significant potential for transforming these revolutionary candidate drugs into effective therapies for DM. It will offer compelling evidence of their safety and assess the associated adverse effects.


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Author Biographies

  • Nasim Akhtar, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Islamabad, Pakistan

    Department of Infectious Diseases, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Islamabad, Pakistan 

  • Sana Tahir Virk, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Islamabad, Pakistan

    Department of Infectious Diseases, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Islamabad, Pakistan

  • Shabnam Mehboob, Department of Zoology, Shaheed Benazir Women University Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan

    Department of Zoology, Shaheed Benazir Women University Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan. 


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How to Cite

Nasim Akhtar, Sana Tahir Virk, Zubair A, Mehboob S. Precision Medicine Approaches in Diabetes Management: Targeting Individualized Pathways. IRABCS [Internet]. 2024 Jul. 2 [cited 2024 Jul. 20];2(1):5-12. Available from:

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