The Factors behind the Outbreak of HIV in Pakistan


  • Akmal Zubair Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan Author
  • Muhammad Ali Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan Author


HIV/AIDS in Pakistan, vulnerable populations, gender inequality impact, HIV transmission risk, unsafe medical practices


In Pakistan, the current estimate indicates that 183,705 individuals are living with HIV/AIDS, with a distribution across provinces and autonomous regions. The country's low literacy rate poses a challenge in comprehending preventive measures, contributing to the unchecked spread of HIV through sexual contact, blood transfusions, and the use of infected devices. High-risk groups include sex workers, transgender individuals, men having sex with men, and injecting drug users. Population migration and mobility, especially in Karachi, contribute to the high HIV incidence. Injecting drug users and their spouses are identified as particularly vulnerable, with a moderate risk of transmission. The hijra community, engaging in anal intercourse, is at a high risk of HIV. Other vulnerable groups include Zenanas and Chavas, male sex workers (Maalishias), and individuals affected by unsafe medical practices, such as outdated injectable equipment. Transmission from mother to infant is also a concern, with an increase in reported cases among females and children. Gender inequality, marked by lower socioeconomic status and restricted mobility for females, contributes to the disproportionate impact on women in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Pakistan.


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How to Cite

Zubair A, Ali M. The Factors behind the Outbreak of HIV in Pakistan. IRABCS [Internet]. 2023 Dec. 31 [cited 2024 Jul. 20];1(2):58-9. Available from:

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