The Potential of Insulin Therapy in Improving Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Health for Diabetic Patients




diabetic cardiomyopathy, diabetes, insulin therapy, cardiac contractile proteins, glycemic control, cardiac function


Aims: This study aimed to investigate the effects of diabetes on cardiac contractile proteins and assess the potential reversibility of these effects through insulin therapy, with a specific focus on the interconnectedness of cardiovascular and pulmonary health.

Methods: A prospective 9-month study involving 150 adults categorized into three groups, including diabetic individuals without insulin treatment, those with insulin treatment, and a control group. Comprehensive baseline assessments were conducted, and various measurements, including cardiac contractile proteins, glycemic control, heart function, and pulmonary health, were analyzed at regular intervals. Statistical analyses encompassed paired and independent t-tests, ANOVA, and regression analysis, utilizing SPSS software (version 23) with a significance threshold of p < 0.05.

Results: Both diabetic groups demonstrated improved glycemic control, with the Diabetic Insulin Group (DIG) experiencing a reduction in HbA1c levels from 8.3% to 7.9% and the Diabetic Group (DG) displaying a decrease in fasting blood glucose levels from 166.2 mg/dL to 158.4 mg/dL. DG showed enhanced ejection fraction, suggesting improved cardiac function, and a minor shortening of the QTc interval, indicating better electrical cardiac stability, potentially linked to enhanced pulmonary function. A noteworthy increase in actin levels was observed in DIG, signifying a potential reversal of cardiac protein changes with potential implications for pulmonary health.

Conclusion: This study underscores the significance of effective glycemic control and the potential of insulin therapy in preserving or restoring heart function in individuals with diabetes, emphasizing the need for comprehensive diabetes management in addressing and preventing cardiac issues. Pulmonary function tests indicated minimal changes in pulmonary health within the study's timeframe, suggesting limited impact during this period.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

  • Dr. Haris Khan, Rehman Medical Institute (RMI) Peshawar

    I am Dr. Haris Khan (MBBS), currently working as House Officer at Rehman Medical Institute (RMI), Peshawar

  • Dr. Muhammad Ibrahim, Bannu Medical College


  • Dr. Shafiq Ur Rahman, Saidu Medical College, Swat


  • Dr. Amna Mohsin, Rehman Medical Institute (RMI), Peshawar


  • Dr. Abban Anwar Niazi , PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi


  • Dr. Iqra Maryam, Fatima Jinnah Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan

    MBBS (2021)


Liu Y, Neumann D, Glatz JF, Luiken JJ. Molecular mechanism of lipid-induced cardiac insulin resistance and contractile dysfunction. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. 2018 Sep 1;136:131-41. DOI:

Nguyen TD, Schwarzer M, Schrepper A, Amorim PA, Blum D, Hain C, Faerber G, Haendeler J, Altschmied J, Doenst T. Increased Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP 1B) Activity and Cardiac Insulin Resistance Precede Mitochondrial and Contractile Dysfunction in Pressure‐Overloaded Hearts. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2018 Jul 3;7(13):e008865. DOI:

Wang Q, Liu Y, Fu Q, Xu B, Zhang Y, Kim S, Tan R, Barbagallo F, West T, Anderson E, Wei W. Inhibiting insulin-mediated β2-adrenergic receptor activation prevents diabetes-associated cardiac dysfunction. Circulation. 2017 Jan 3;135(1):73-88. DOI:

Riehle C, Abel ED. Insulin signaling and heart failure. Circulation research. 2016 Apr 1;118(7):1151-69. DOI:

Singh S, Netticadan T, Ramdath DD. Expression of cardiac insulin signalling genes and proteins in rats fed a high-sucrose diet: effect of bilberry anthocyanin extract. Genes & Nutrition. 2016 Dec;11(1):1-2. DOI:

Jia G, Whaley-Connell A, Sowers JR. Diabetic cardiomyopathy: a hyperglycaemia-and insulin-resistance-induced heart disease. Diabetologia. 2018 Jan;61(1):21-8. DOI:

Fu Q, Wang Q, Xiang YK. Insulin and β adrenergic receptor signaling: crosstalk in heart. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2017 Jun 1;28(6):416-27. DOI:

Wu D, Ren P, Zheng Y, Zhang L, Xu G, Xie W, Lloyd EE, Zhang S, Zhang Q, Curci JA, Coselli JS. NLRP3 (nucleotide oligomerization domain–like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3)–caspase-1 inflammasome degrades contractile proteins: implications for aortic biomechanical dysfunction and aneurysm and dissection formation. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. 2017 Apr;37(4):694-706. DOI:

Fu Q, Shi Q, West TM, Xiang YK. Cross-talk between insulin signaling and GPCRs. Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology. 2017 Aug;70(2):74. DOI:

Bell DS, Goncalves E. Heart failure in the patient with diabetes: Epidemiology, aetiology, prognosis, therapy and the effect of glucose‐lowering medications. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. 2019 Jun;21(6):1277-90. DOI:

Wang S, Schianchi F, Neumann D, Wong LY, Sun A, van Nieuwenhoven FA, Zeegers MP, Strzelecka A, Col U, Glatz JF, Nabben M. Specific amino acid supplementation rescues the heart from lipid overload-induced insulin resistance and contractile dysfunction by targeting the endosomal mTOR–v-ATPase axis. Molecular Metabolism. 2021 Nov 1;53:101293. DOI:

Wang Q, Ren J. mTOR-Independent autophagy inducer trehalose rescues against insulin resistance-induced myocardial contractile anomalies: Role of p38 MAPK and Foxo1. Pharmacological research. 2016 Sep 1;111:357-73. DOI:

Perry BD, Caldow MK, Brennan-Speranza TC, Sbaraglia M, Jerums G, Garnham A, Wong C, Levinger P, ul Haq MA, Hare DL, Price SR. Muscle atrophy in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: roles of inflammatory pathways, physical activity and exercise. Exercise immunology review. 2016;22:94. PMCID:

Jia G, Hill MA, Sowers JR. Diabetic cardiomyopathy: an update of mechanisms contributing to this clinical entity. Circulation research. 2018 Feb 16;122(4):624-38. DOI:

Chong CR, Clarke K, Levelt E. Metabolic remodelling in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Cardiovascular research. 2017 Mar 15;113(4):422-30. DOI:

Gargiulo P, Perrone-Filardi P. Heart failure, whole-body insulin resistance and myocardial insulin resistance: an intriguing puzzle. Journal of Nuclear Cardiology. 2018 Feb;25:177-80. DOI:

Montaigne D, Butruille L, Staels B. PPAR control of metabolism and cardiovascular functions. Nature Reviews Cardiology. 2021 Dec;18(12):809-23. DOI:

Qin CX, Sleaby R, Davidoff AJ, Bell JR, De Blasio MJ, Delbridge LM, Chatham JC, Ritchie RH. Insights into the role of maladaptive hexosamine biosynthesis and O-GlcNAcylation in development of diabetic cardiac complications. Pharmacological Research. 2017 Feb 1;116:45-56. DOI:

Al Kury LT. Calcium homeostasis in ventricular myocytes of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Journal of Diabetes Research. 2020 Nov 13;2020. DOI:

Bombicz M, Priksz D, Gesztelyi R, Kiss R, Hollos N, Varga B, Nemeth J, Toth A, Papp Z, Szilvassy Z, Juhasz B. The drug candidate BGP-15 delays the onset of diastolic dysfunction in the Goto-Kakizaki rat model of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Molecules. 2019 Feb 7;24(3):586. DOI:




How to Cite

Khan H, Ibrahim DM, Dr. Shafiq Ur Rahman, Mohsin DA, Niazi DAA, Maryam DI. The Potential of Insulin Therapy in Improving Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Health for Diabetic Patients. IRABCS [Internet]. 2024 Jul. 2 [cited 2024 Jul. 20];2(1):55-61. Available from:

Similar Articles

1-10 of 20

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 > >>