The Role of Gut Microbiota in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Mechanisms, Therapeutic Targets, and Future Directions

Authors

  • Hafsa Khalil Women Medical and Dental College Abbottabad, Pakistan Author
  • Rubab Ahmad Women Medical and Dental College Abbottabad, Pakistan Author
  • Mehr un Nisa Sawar Women Medical and Dental College Abbottabad, Pakistan Author
  • Atizaz Ahmad Saidu Medical College Swat, Pakistan Author
  • Hareera Women Medical and Dental College Abbottabad, Pakistan Author
  • Imran Khan Pak International Medical College, Peshawar, Pakistan Author

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.62497/IRABCS.2024.41

Keywords:

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), chronic inflammatory conditions, digestive tract, gut microbiota, microorganisms, gastrointestinal tract, dysbiosis, microbial diversity, therapeutic targets

Abstract

Background: The complicated result of immune response dysregulation, genetic predisposition, and external factors combines to cause a condition called inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). An increasing number of studies have lately connected the onset and progression of bowel inflammation to the gut flora.
Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to look at gut function microbiota in IBD, elucidate its mechanisms, identify potential therapeutic targets, and explore future directions in this rapidly evolving field.
Methodology: To examine the function of the gastrointestinal tract A cross-sectional study was carried out at the Pakistan Academy of Medicine and Dentistry (PIMS) in Islamabad between April 2023 and March 2024. We recruited a total of 72 participants who had received a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel illness. (IBD), and we used next-generation sequencing methods to collect stool samples for microbiota characterization. Demographic information, disease characteristics, and dietary habits were assessed through structured questionnaires.
Results: Analysis of stool samples revealed alterations in gut microbiota composition in IBD patients compared to healthy controls, including a reduction in microbial diversity (Shannon Index: 2.8 ± 0.6 in IBD patients vs. 4.2 ± 0.8 in healthy controls) and shifts in the relative abundance of major phyla (Proteobacteria: 25.7% ± 5.2% in IBD patients vs. 12.1% ± 3.5% in healthy controls; Firmicutes: 41.3% ± 8.1% in IBD patients vs. 58.9% ± 7.3% in healthy controls). Dietary elements, illness severity, and gut microbiota composition were linked in IBD patients. Promising anti-inflammatory compounds and regulating the diversity of bacteria were two of the prospective goals for therapy found.
Conclusion: Our research establishes a dysbiotic gut microbiota in IBD and shows how it relates to dietary variables and the severity of the illness. A potential treatment strategy for IBD is to target the gut microbiota, but more investigation is required to fully understand the intricate relationships that exist between the gut microbiota, host characteristics, and environmental effects.
Keywords: Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) refers to a group of chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the digestive tract. The gut microbiota, which refers to the community of microorganisms that reside in the gastrointestinal tract, plays a significant role in the development and progression of IBD, dysbiosis, microbial diversity, disease severity, therapeutic targets

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Author Biographies

  • Hafsa Khalil, Women Medical and Dental College Abbottabad, Pakistan

    MBBS

  • Rubab Ahmad, Women Medical and Dental College Abbottabad, Pakistan

    MBBS

  • Mehr un Nisa Sawar, Women Medical and Dental College Abbottabad, Pakistan

    MBBS

  • Atizaz Ahmad, Saidu Medical College Swat, Pakistan

    MBBS

  • Hareera, Women Medical and Dental College Abbottabad, Pakistan

    MBBS

  • Imran Khan, Pak International Medical College, Peshawar, Pakistan

    MBBS

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Published

06/30/2024

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How to Cite

1.
Khalil H, Rubab Ahmad, Sawar M un N, Ahmad A, Hareera, Khan I. The Role of Gut Microbiota in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Mechanisms, Therapeutic Targets, and Future Directions. IRABCS [Internet]. 2024 Jun. 30 [cited 2024 Jul. 20];2(1):85-90. Available from: https://irabcs.com/ojs/article/view/41

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